In order to see anything on the internet you need a web browser. When looking at a browser most appear to be similar but the way they perform and process operation is different. Some browser include Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, and Firefox.
Html is the code that is used to create a web page. Web pages can be created with a simple text editors if wanted to be done by hand or by WYSIWYG editors which shows you what it will look like while make the page.
To name web files you only have to do a few simple things:
Never use the same name
Keep it simple
Make it all lower case
No special character
Use underscore for spaces
Always start with a letter
Include character extension on your file name
Always create a root folder where all the information for webpages should be stored. Html5 is the latest evolution of the langauge of the web. W3C or World Wide Web Consortium tried to end HTML as it was and replace it with XHTML 2 that is a completely new language that would not be compatible with existing HTML. XHTML2 proved to be a horrible choice and another group that was working on HTML5 was used instead.
More can be learned about the langauage of the web here: http://www.alistapart.com/articles/a-brief-history-of-markup/
File Transfer Protocol is how the internet transfer files from one computer to another computer. Requires two computer one is a client and one is a server. FTP is used to transfer high level of data.
More can be learned about File Transfer Protocol: http://www.ftpclient.com/ftp_client_faq.html
An overview of everything can be found here: https://angel.aacc.edu/AngelUploads/Content/USER-jmschuster/CAT274/module01/overview-www.html